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Alabama Mussels in the Genus Quadrula
Southern Mapleleaf Quadrula apiculata. Common. Formerly restricted to the Mobile Basin. Introduced into lower Tennessee River. Highly variable in shell morphology and may represent a species complex. Found in riverine and impounded habitats. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
Alabama Orb Quadrula asperata. Common. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Widespread and often common. Usually found in habitats with at least some current. Unsculptured form in Tallapoosa River system may be a valid species (Q. archeri). Lowest Conservation Concern.
Rabbitsfoot Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant in Paint Rock River system and a short reach of Bear Creek, Colbert County. Usually found along margins of shoals, but may be found in pools. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
Cumberland Monkeyface Quadrula intermedia. Extirpated. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported from Alabama since the river was impounded. Restricted to lotic habitats. Potential for reintroduction into Wilson Dam tailwaters. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Monkeyface Quadrula metanevra. Uncommon. Found in Tennessee River system and Mobile Basin. Almost always occurs in riverine habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
Pimpleback Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa. Common. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Found in Tennessee River proper and large tributaries. Occurs in riverine and impounded habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
Mapleleaf Quadrula quadrula. Common. Apparently restricted to Tennessee River system. Specimens with similar shell morphology in Mobile Basin are probably aberrant Q. apiculata. Found both in current and sluggish water. Does well in impoundments. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
Purple Pimpleback Quadrula refulgens. Poorly known. Possibly of marginal occurrence in Alabama. One record from Escatawpa River in extreme southwestern Alabama may represent a transplanted shell. Moderate Conservation Concern.
Ridged Mapleleaf Quadrula rumphiana. Fairly common. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Widespread in the system, it is highly variable in shell morphology and may represent a species complex. Found most commonly in areas with at least some current. Low Conservation Concern.
Appalachian Monkeyface Quadrula sparsa. Extirpated. Archaeological records recently found of its occurrence at Muscle Shoals and Hobbs Island in Tennessee River basin. EXTIRPATED.
Stirrupshell Quadrula stapes. Possibly extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Found only in Tombigbee River system historically. Prehistoric shells occasionally found on Alabama River. Not reported since construction of Tennessee-Tombigee Waterway. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.